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201
Lake Family Crest
Lake Family Crest
This very interesting surname is of early English medieval origins. It is to be found chiefly in the West Country, and is either topographical or locational. If the former it was a surname for someone who lived by a stream or water course or a bog. The derivation is either from the Old English pre 7th century word 'lacu' meaning a water course or 'laecc', meaning a bog. Curiously the word lake meaning a body of open water, is not apparently recorded in England before the 13th century, and it is uncertain as to whether it was the source of surnames at all. However the surname can be locational from places called Lake, at least two villages being so recorded in the counties of Wiltshire and Devonshire, whilst many other place names such as Mortlake, or Lakenheath have the word lake as either a suffix or prefix, and may have provided nameholders. The place in Wiltshire is first recorded in the Feudal Aid rolls of the county in 1316. The modern surname is recorded as Lake, Lack, Lakes, Laker, meaning one who lived by or worked by a water course, and Lakeman, which has a similar meaning. One William Lake was an early emigrant to the New England colonies in America. He left London on the ship 'Assurance' in July 1635, bound for Virginia. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Richard de la Lake. This was dated 1200, in the Shropshire Pipe Rolls, during the reign of King John of England, and known by the nickname of 'Lackland', 1199-1216. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
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202
Lane Family Crest
Lane Family Crest
This is an surname of English, French and Irish origins. Recorded in many spellings including Loan, Lane, Lain and Layne, it has three distinct possible origins. The first and most likely being a topographical name for one resident in a narrow pathway between fences or hedges, later used of any narrow passage including one between houses in a town. The derivation is from the Olde English pre 7th Century "lanu", and early recordings of the surname from this source include: Osbertus in Lane of the county of Surrey in the year 1212; Adam Ithelane of Bedfordshire in 1227; and Nicholas atte Lone of Worcestershire in 1275. Lane may also have originated as an occupational name for a worker in wool, from the Old French word "laine" meaning wool, and introduced after the Invasion of 1066. Lane may be derived from an Anglicized form of two Gaelic Irish surnames, "O'Laighin meaning the descendant of Laighean, a byname translating as "spear", and O'Luain meaning the descendant of the warrior. Irish family names are taken from the heads of tribes, revered elders, or from some illustrious warrior, and are usually prefixed by "O", meaning grandson or male descendant of, or "Mac", denoting "son of". The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Ralph de la Lane, which was dated 1176, in the "Pipe Rolls of Kent", during the reign of King Henry 11, known as "The Builder of Churches", 1154 - 1189. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Lascelle Family Crest
Lascelle Family Crest
 
 
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Latham Family Crest
Latham Family Crest
This interesting name is of Old Scandinavian origin, and is a variant form of the more familiar locational surname "Latham", which derives from any one of the following places: Latham, in West Yorkshire; Lathom, in Lancashire; and Laytham in East Yorkshire. All of these share the same meaning and derivation, which is "(place of or by) the barns", derived from the Old Norse "hlatha", barn. Lathom in Lancashire is recorded as "Latune" in the Domesday Book of 1086, and in the 1201 Pipe Rolls of the county as "Lathum". "Laytham" in East Yorkshire appears as "Ladone" in the Domesday Book. Locational surnames were usually acquired by those former inhabitants of a place who moved to another area, and were thereafter best identified by the name of their birthplace. The modern surname can be found as Latham, Lathom, Laytham, Leatham and Lathem. The marriage of John Leatham and Kathleen Lee was recorded in Carlton near Snaith in Yorkshire on January 28th 1626. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Robert de Latham (witness), which was dated 1204, in the "Yorkshire Assize Court Rolls", during the reign of King John, known as "Lackland", 1199 - 1216. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Lathom Family Crest
Lathom Family Crest
This interesting name is of Old Scandinavian origin, and is a variant form of the more familiar locational surname "Latham", which derives from any one of the following places: Latham, in West Yorkshire; Lathom, in Lancashire; and Laytham in East Yorkshire. All of these share the same meaning and derivation, which is "(place of or by) the barns", derived from the Old Norse "hlatha", barn. Lathom in Lancashire is recorded as "Latune" in the Domesday Book of 1086, and in the 1201 Pipe Rolls of the county as "Lathum". "Laytham" in East Yorkshire appears as "Ladone" in the Domesday Book. Locational surnames were usually acquired by those former inhabitants of a place who moved to another area, and were thereafter best identified by the name of their birthplace. The modern surname can be found as Latham, Lathom, Laytham, Leatham and Lathem. The marriage of John Leatham and Kathleen Lee was recorded in Carlton near Snaith in Yorkshire on January 28th 1626. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Robert de Latham (witness), which was dated 1204, in the "Yorkshire Assize Court Rolls", during the reign of King John, known as "Lackland", 1199 - 1216. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Lathrop Family Crest
Lathrop Family Crest
 
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207
Latimer Family Crest
Latimer Family Crest
This ancient name is of Old French origin, introduced into England by the Normans after the Conquest of 1066, and is an occupational surname for a clerk or keeper of records in Latin. The name derives from the Old French (and later Anglo-Norman French) "latinier", latim(m)ier", interpreter, literally "a speaker of Latin", ultimately from the Latin "latimarus, latinarius". A late medieval English dictionary, the "Promptorium arvulorum", defines a "latonere", as ... "he that usythe Latyn speche". During the Middle Ages Latin was effectively the only language used for official documents, and the position of "Latiner" or "Latimer" was therefore a skilled and important one. Latin was displaced in England only gradually by the vernacular, firstly Anglo-Norman French, and eventually English. The surname is recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 in its Latinized form: Ralph Latimarus (Essex), and Hugo Latinarius, Interpres (Hampshire). A notable bearer of the name was Hugh Latimer (1485 - 1555), the Protestant bishop; he was burnt at the stake for heresy under "Bloody" Mary 1 of England. An early example of the name from London Church Registers is that of the christening of Josua Latimer at St. Lawrence Pountney, on July 24th 1548. A Coat of Arms granted to a family of the name in the reign of Edward 1st (1272 - 1307) depicts, on a red shield, four black escallops on a gold cross patonce. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Gocelinus le Latimer, which was dated 1102, in the "Chartulary of the Monastery of Ramsey", Cambridgeshire, during the reign of King Henry 1, known as "The Lion of Justice", 1100 - 1135. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
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208
Laughlen Family Crest
Laughlen Family Crest
The surname MacLaughlin, also spelt Laughlin, Lauchlan, Laughlan, MacLoughlin and McLaughlin, is used in modern Irish as the Anglicization of an Old Gaelic name borne by two entirely distinct Gaelic septs, the first originally called 'O' Maoilsheachlann' and Anglicized as O'Melaghlin up to the end of the 17th Century assumed the name MacLoughun in circa 1691. The territory of this sept lay in the central plains of Ireland, especially in County Meath. The Gaelic prefix "O" indicates male descendant of, and "maol", the tonsured one, i.e. a devotee (of Saint Seachlann i.e. St. Secundinus). This Maoilsheachlann from whom the family descends was better known as Malachy 11, High King of Ireland from 980 - 1002. The second MacLaughlin sept belonged to Innishowen Co. Donegal. The name means "son of (mac) Lochlann", a compound of the Norse elements "loch", a lake or fjord, plus "lann" land. The great leading men of this sept are frequently referred to in "The Annals of the Four Masters". Among the recordings in Ireland is the marriage of John McLaughlin and Elizabeth Crauffurd on June 23rd 1666 at Derry Cathedral, Templemore, Londonderry, Northern Ireland. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of MacLochlann of Ulster, which was dated circa 1200, in the Annals of Medieval History (Counties Donegal and Derry), during the reign of King Cathal, Craobhdhearg - known as Red Hand, High King of Ireland, 1198 - 1224. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
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209
Lee Family Tree
This famous name recorded as Lee, Lees, Lea, Leas, Lease and Leese is of Olde English origin. It is usually locational and derives from any of the places named with the pre 7th Century element "leah". This translates as "an open place" in a forest or wood, but may describe a water meadow, the word having different meanings in different parts of the country. Examples of the place names include Lee in Buckinghamshire and Hampshire, and also Lea in Cheshire, Lincolnshire and Wiltshire. The name may also be topographical, for someone who lived at a clearing or pasture, as in the surname 'Atlee'. The name is one of the earliest recorded (see below) and early examples include Turqod de la Lea, in the 1193 Pipe Rolls of Warwickshire, Roger de Lees of Norfolk and Richard de la Lee in the 1272 Hundred Rolls of Wiltshire, whilst Robert Leese is recorded in the Wills Register of the county of Cheshire in 1593. Examples from church registers include John Lee, who married Agnes Masset in London in 1550, and Anne Lease, a widow, who married William Sulham also in London in 1577. Sir Henry Lee (1530 - 1610) was master of the ordnance and personal champion to Queen Elizabeth from 1559 to 1590, when his son took over the position. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Ailric de la Leie, which was dated circa 1148, in the "Charters of Northamptonshire", during the reign of King Stephen, known as "Count of Blois", 1135 - 1154. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.
(At least one living or private individual is linked to this item - Details withheld.) 
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Leffingwell Family Crest
Leffingwell Family Crest
 
 
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Legh Family Crest
Legh Family Crest
This interesting surname of English origin is a locational name from any of numerous places in at least sixteen counties, but especially Leigh in Lancashire, deriving from the Old English pre 7th Century "leah" meaning "wood" or "clearing", hence "dweller by the wood or clearing". The surname Leigh is most common in Cheshire and Southern Lancashire. A Cheshire family spelling the name Legh claim descent from Edward de Lega, who received large grants of land in the county in the 11th Century. Variations in the idiom of the spelling include Lee, Lea, Ley, Leys, Lay, Laye, Lye, etc.. Alexander Legh (died 1501) received an M.A. having studied at Eton and Kings College, Cambridge. He became Canon of Windsor in 1469 and was employed on embassies to Scotland in 1474 and later years. One Margarett Legh married William Denny in February 1710 at Mercer Hall Chapel, London and Henrietta Maria, daughter of Peter and Martha Legh was christened at St. Anne Soho, Westminster on March 11th 1744. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Ailrick de la Leic, which was dated 1148 "Facimiles of early Charters from Northamptonshire Collections", during the reign of King Stepen, "Count of Blois", 1135 - 1154. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Leigh Family Crest
Leigh Family Crest
Recorded as Lay, Lea, Lee, Lees, Leese, Leigh, Leighe, Leagh, and according to the famous International Generalogical Index, the rare forms of Lahee, Leagas, Leage, League, Leyh, and others. If so and howver spelt this ancient and widely distributed surname is of Olde English pre 7th century origins. It is either a topographical name from residence in a glade or wood-clearing, and deriving from the word "leah", or locational from any of the various places named Lee or Leigh. These include Leigh in Berkshire, Cheshire, Dorset, Oxfordshire and Gloucestershire, appearing respectively as Lege, Lega, Lege and Lalege in the Domesday Book of 1086 for the above counties. Leigh in Lancashire is recorded as Leeche in the Cockersand Chartulary of 1276. Topographical surnames were among the earliest created, providing easily recognizable names in the small communities of the Middle Ages. Locational surnames were originally given as a means of identification to those who left their birthplace to settle elsewhere. Early examples of the surname recordings include: Liffild de Lega of Essex in the year1176, and Pagan a la Legh of Yorkshire, in the Pipe Rolls of 1208. A notable bearer of the name was Sir Thomas Leigh, Lord Mayor of London in 1558, the first year of the reign of the famous Queen Bess, Queen Elizabeth 1st, 1558 - 1603. A coat of arms has the blazon of a gold shield with a red lion rampant, the crest being a hand proper grasping a broken tilting spear. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Ailric de la Leie. This was dated 1148, in "Early Charters from Northamptonshire", during the reign of King Stephen, known as "Count of Blois", 1135 - 1154. 
 
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Leopard Family Crest
Leopard Family Crest
Recorded as Leppard, Leopard, Leophard, Leppert, and Lippard, this is an Anglo-French surname. It is Medieval and derives from the French word 'leopard', and ultimately from the Roman (Latin) "leopardus", a compound of "leo", a lion, and "pardus", a panther. Originally given as a nickname to one who was thought to bear a fancied resemblance to the animal, (perhaps a swift and powerful runner), the surname was first recorded in England in the latter part of the 13th Cenrury (see below). Early examples of the recording include William Lepard the Tax Subsidy Rolls of the county of Sussex, dated 1296, and Reginald Leopard in the Close Rolls of the city of London in the year 1300. It is likely that the spelling as Lepard, Leppard, and Lippard originated from a single family in Sussex, as examples taken from the church registers of that county include William Leppard and Mercye Scarce who were married at Wivelsfield on June 24th 1593, and on August 25th 1611, John Lippard, was christened at the village of Arlington. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of John Lyppard. This was dated 1273, in the Hundred Rolls of Norfolk, during the reign of King Edward 1st of England, 1272 - 1307. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Lester Family Crest
Lester Family Crest
This unusual name is of Anglo-Saxon origin and is a locational surname deriving from Leicester, the county town of Leicestershire. The placename is recorded in the "Anglo-Saxon Chronicles" of 942 as "Ligora Ceaster", and in the Domesday Book of 1086 as "Ledecestre", the derivation being from the Old English pre 7th Century tribal name "Ligore", meaning "dwellers on the river Legra" with "Ceaster" a Roman fort, from the Latin "Castra", legionary camp. The development of the surname has included Nicholas de Leycester (1286, Cheshire), William Leycetter (1480, Yorkshire), Henry Lasisture (1503, ibid.) and Richard Lasseter (1550, Sussex). The modern surname can be found in forms as varied as "Leicester, Lestor, Lesseter and Laister". On December 17th 1590, Elizabeth Leicester, an infant, was christened in St. Michael's, Wood Street, London. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Hugo de Legrecestra, which was dated 1130, in the "Leicestershire Pipe Rolls", during the reign of King Henry 1, known as "The Lion of Justice", 1100 - 1135. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Little Family Crest
Little Family Crest
Recorded in several spelings as shown below, this is one of the oldest of English surnames. Originally in ancient times it was a personal name of endearment as in "Little man," and even as a medieval nickname surname, probably did not describe a man of small stature, but the very opposite. This is proven to a large extent by the famous outlaw of Robin Hood fables "Little John," so called because he was a giant of a man. His long bow supposedly seven feet in length, was for many years was to be found at the famous Bolton Arms, at Bolton Abbey, in Wharfedale, Yorkshire. It is also claimed that word was used for the younger of two bearers of the same name, as in the modern and mainly American practice of using "junior" for a son with the same name as the father. Early examples of the surname taken from surviving registers include Lefstan Litle in Feudal Documents of the Danelaw at the abbey of Bury St. Edmunds in the county of Suffolk, whilst Thomas Lytle was recorded in Sussex in the Subsidy Tax rolls of 1296. John and Jane Little were early emigrants to the English colonies of the New World being recorded in the parish of Christchurch, Barbadoes, in 1678. Modern spellings of the surname include Little, Littell, Lytle and Lyttle. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Eadric Little. This was dated 972, in the register of Old English Bynames, for the county of Northamptonshire, during the reign of King Edgar, 959 - 975 a.d. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was sometimes known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Long Family Crest
Long Family Crest
This interesting name is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is an example of that sizeable group of early European surnames that were gradually created from the habitual use of nicknames. The nicknames were given in the first instance with reference to a variety of characteristics, such as physical attributes or peculiarities, mental and moral characteristics, supposed resemblance to an animal or bird's appearance or disposition, habits or dress, and occupation. In this instance the nickname was given to a tall person, derived from the Old English pre 7th Century "lang, long", long, tall, from the Latin "longus". The name development since 972 (see below) includes: Berard Long (1121 - 1148, Suffolk), Godfrey Lunge (1179, Gloucester) and Adam ye Langge (1279, Yorkshire). The modern surname can be found as Long, Lang(e), Lung and Laing. One John Long was an early emigrant to the Barbadoes in April 1635. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Aetheric des Langa, which was dated 972, Old English Bynames, Northamptonshire, during the reign of King Edgar, 959 - 975. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Lord Family Crest
Lord Family Crest
This very interesting name has from its origins in pre 7th Century Britain actually meant what it describes. The derivation is from the ancient (Anglo-Saxon) "hlaf-weard" which translates literally as "loaf-keeper" but in fact refers to a time when the appointed chief had amongst his responsibilities that of ensuring that the village or tribe was properly fed. After the Norman invasion of 1066, the term was "annexed" by the monarch to help create the status of nobility and was not therefore part of surname formation. The modern nameholders derive either from the festival election of a "Lord of Misrule", a medieval custom which lasted several centuries, or from the appointment of a "Lord of the Harvest". This latter job combined all the skills of management in that the "Lord" was responsible for both employing his harvest workers and negotiating their wage rates. Another possibility is that the name is a form of nickname, either for one who worked for a "lord", or who adopted lordly manners. The name is one of the earliest into America: Thomas Lord and his family of five embarked from London to Virginia on April 29th 1635 in the ship "Elizabeth and Anne" of London. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of William Le Lauerd, which was dated 1198, in the "Pipe Rolls of Land Charters of Suffolk", during the reign of King Richard 1, known as "The Lionheart", 1189 - 1199. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
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218
Luby Family Crest
Luby Family Crest
Recorded as O'Luby, Luby, Lube and Looby, this is an ancient Irish surname. Originally recorded in the Gaelic as O' Lubaigh, it has the unusual meaning of 'The male descendant of the cunning one.' This is or was almost certainly a reference to the original chief of the clan, as 'nicknames' are the source of the vast majority of not just Irish, but all Gaelic surnames. The clan are believed to originate from County Tipperary, and particularly the baronies of Iffa and Offa. However there is also a place called Ballylooby or the place of the Looby's, and presumbly this is where the name originated in ancient times. In 1665 there were twenty families called Looby or Luby recorded in the Hearth Tax registers for Tipperary, whilst in 1690 it is claimed that Lieutenant William Luby of County Kildare joined the army of King James 11nd. However King James being defeated at the battle of the Boyne, William Luby was captured and subsequently outllawed for high treason. However he later managed to have this sentence reversed, and at the same time he changed his name to Lube. There are a few recordings of Lube in Counties Kildare and Meath, and these people are presumably descendants. Thomas Clarke Luby, (1822 - 1901) was a prominent Fenian, as well as being a journalist, and a Protestant, not the usual qualifications for being what was then regarded as a rebel. 
 
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Lucy Family Crest
Lucy Family Crest

This interesting name, with variant spellings Lucey and Luce, has three distinct possible origins. Firstly, it may be of French locational origin form any of the places in Normandy, for example, Luce (Orne), so called from the Latin personal name Lucius, a derivative of "lux", light, plus the locational suffix "acum", a settlement. The surname from this source was first recorded in the mid 12th Century, (see below). Other early recordings include Gilbert de Lucie, John de Luce and Richard de Lucy, the 1273, Hundred Rolls of Lincolnshire, Norfolk and Essex respectively. The second possibility is that the name derives directly from the medieval female given name Lucie, related to the Latin Lucius (above). One, William Lucy noted in the 1297 "Ministers' Accounts of the Earldom of Cornwall" was the first recorded namebearer from this source. Finally, Luc(e)y is an Anglicized form of the Old Gaelic O Luasaigh, originally Mac Cluasaigh, "son of the Listener" from "cluas", ear. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Richard de Luci, which was dated 1135, in the "Register of Bury St. Edmunds", Suffolk, during the reign of King Henry 1, known as "The Lion of Justice", 1100 - 1135. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Luttrell Family Crest
Luttrell Family Crest
 
 
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Macclesfield Family Crest
Macclesfield Family Crest
 
 
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Martin Family Crest
Martin Family Crest
This interesting surname recorded in some two hundred forms from Martin and Martini to Marti and Martinovich, is of Roman origin. It derives from "Mars", the god of fertility and war, although it is claimed that "Mars" itself may derive ultimately from the word "mar", meaning "to gleam".1 The original given name has been used in every state in Europe since the 12th century crusades to free the Holy Land from the Moslems. However the main impetus which gave the name such popularity was as a result of the good works of the 14th Century Saint Martin of Tours, in France. It is sais that Martin is one of the few saints names which the protestants accepted after the reformation. There are many patronymic forms such as Martinez (Spanish) or Martenssen (Swedish), and diminutives such as Martineau (France) and Martinelli (Italian). Curiously the Polish spellings of Marcinkowski and Marciszewski are locational, originating from a town called Martin, as is the Czech Martinovsky. Examples of the surname recordings taken from authentic registers of the period include John Martin of Plymouth, England, who was navigator to Sir Francis Drake, on his first "Round the World" voyage of 1577, whilst Christopher Martin was a member of the Pilgrim Fathers in 1620. Suarez Martinez was christened at Asuncion, Mexico, on October 2md 1774, whilst Jack Martinet was registered at Berkeley, California on September 27th 1909, and Jeffrey Lynn Martineau at Los Angelos on April 10th 1948. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Walter Martin, which was dated 1166, in the charters of the county of Northampton, England, during the reign of King Henry 11, known as "The Builder of Churches", 1154 - 1189. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
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Massey Family Crest
Massey Family Crest
Recorded in the various spellings of Macy, Massy, Massey, Massie and Macey, this very interesting surname is of pre 8th century Old French origins. Introduced into England after the Norman Conquest of 1066 in some numbers, many of whom received significant land grants, the ultimate surname has two possible origins. Firstly and most likely, it is a locational surname from one of the many villages in Normandy who provided the bulk of Duke William's 1066 expeditionary force. These include such places as Macey in La Manche, Massy in Seine-Inferieure, and Mace-sur-Orne, in the department of Orne itself. A second possible origin is as a short form of the Roman personal name 'Massius', itself a development of the original Matthew. It is quite impossible in the 20th century to tell which origin applies to a modern surname holder. The development in both cases includes: Hugo Mascy of Huntingdonshire and John de Maci of Middlesex, both in the year 1221; and William Massy of Nottinghamshire in 1330. Later recordings of the surname from surviving early church register lists include the marriage of John Massey and Mawde Fothergell at St. Margaret's, Westminster, on September 22nd 1571, and in Lancashire where the name has been prominent since medieval times, that of Robert Massye, a christening witness at Manchester Cathedral on June 11th 1583. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Hamo de Masci, which was dated 1086, in the Domesday Book of Essex. This was during the reign of King William 1st, 1066 - 1087. 
 
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Mayflower Decendants
Mayflower Decendants
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Mayflower_Society 
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McDonald Family Crest
McDonald Family Crest
This is probably the most famous of Scottish clan surnames. Recorded in the modern spellings of MacDonald and McDonald, the derivation is from the pre 10th century Gaelic name Mac Dhomhnuill. This is a compound which translates literally as "The son of the world ruler". Whilst this may not have been the actual meaning fifteen hundred years ago, it is perhaps not entirely coincidental that one branch of the clan are known as "The Lords of the Isles". This was an assumed title, which much resented by early Scottish kings, King David 11 in the year 1369 going to considerable, if unsuccessful lengths, to try to dispossess them by force. In the Gaelic the name was pronounced Mak Oonil, and attempts at pronunciation have rendered a variety of spellings including; MakChonehill (1479), McConile (1570), Mak Donald (1571) and M'Oneill (1576). Early church registers in the Scottish capital of Edinburgh record the christening of John, the son of Alane McDonald, on July 4th 1672, and the marriage of John McDonald and Grissell McFuffan on July 29th 1687. Among the many famous nameholders are Flora MacDonald (1722 - 1790), the rescuer of Bonnie Prince Charlie in 1745, and Sir John MacDonald, (1815 - 1891), the first premier of the Dominion of Canada. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Therthelnac MakDonenalde. This was dated 1251, when he was a charter witness at Lesmore, during the reign of King Alexander 111 of Scotland, 1249 - 1286. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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McKenzie Family Crest
McKenzie Family Crest
Recorded as MacKenzie, McKenzie, Kenzie and Kensit, this is a famous Scottish surname. In the Gaelic it is recorded as Maccoinnich or Macchoinnich, translating as 'the son of Coinneach'. The derivation is from 'Mac' meaning 'son', and 'cainnechus', fair skinned, suggesting that the original nameholders may have been of Norse-Viking nationality. The English pronunciation of the name is interesting as it preserves the medieval Gaelic pronunciation which in most anglicised names, is diffused. The name also appears in early Irish recordings as 'Mac Cainnigh', although strictly speaking the translation is then different as 'the son of the well dressed one'! This seems an unlikely explanation given the propensity of members of the clan to indulge in bloody deeds. Their feud with the MacDonalds occupied most of the period between the 13th and 16th centuries, leaving them little time to indulge in sartorial elegance. This aside, early recordings include those of M'Kenzocht of Kintail in 1491, and Alan McConze of Culcowe, Armanoch, in 1504. Gilchrist Makkingze was arrested for felony in Wigtown in 1513, whilst rather more lawfully Johannes McKenzie held the charter of Kildrin in 1606. Amongst the many interesting namebearers was Sir George Mackenzie K. C., (1636 - 1691), known as 'Bloody George', for his treatment of covenanters, whilst Donald MacKenzie (1783 - 1851), was originally a fur-trader but later Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company in Canada. Murdoch McKenzie, the Elder (1721-1797) and Murdoch McKenzie the younger, his nephew, (1743-1829) were both admiralty surveyors who published reports on marine surveying. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Makbeth Makkyneth. This was dated 1264, in the court of Pleas, held at Dull in Angus, during the reign of King Alexander 111 of Scotland, 1249 -1286. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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McLaughlin Family Crest
McLaughlin Family Crest
Recorded in many forms including MacLaughlin, MacLoughlin, McLaughlin and McLauchlin, this is an ancient Irish surname. It derives from a pre 10th century Old Gaelic name borne by two entirely distinct clans. The first was originally called the O' Maoilsheachlann' and in the 17th century assumed the name MacLoughun. The territory of this sept lay in the central plains of Ireland, especially in County Meath. The prefix O' indicates male descendant of, whilst "maol", describes a "tonsured one", a follower of a religious order. The original nameholder or chief was called Maoilsheachlann and he was better known as Malachy 11nd, the High King of Ireland from 980 a.d. to 1002. The second sept belonged to Innishowen in County Donegal. Here the name meant the "son of Lochlann", the latter being a Norse-Viking pre 7th century compound of the elements "loch", meaning a lake or fjord, plus "lann", land. The great leading men of this sept are frequently referred to in "The Annals of the Four Masters". Among the many recordings in Ireland is the marriage of John McLaughlin and Elizabeth Crauffurd on June 23rd 1666 at Derry Cathedral, Templemore. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Teag MacLochlann of Ulster. This was dated 1199, in the Annals of Medieval History for the counties of Donegal and Derry, during the reign of King Cathal, known as Red Hand. He was the High King of Ireland from 1198 to 1224. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling 
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McNulty Family Crest
McNulty Family Crest
Recorded in many forms including MacNulty, McNulty, MacAnulty, McAnalty, McConnulty, McInility, and possibly others, this is a surname of Irish origins. It is derived from the pre 10th century aelic Mac an Ultaigh meaning the "son of the Ulsterman", a regional locational name. Curously there does not appear to be any similar name for the provinces of Munster, Leinster and Connaught. The clan belongs today as they have done since the inception of surnames, to County Donegal in north-west Ulster, which claims to be the most Irish part of Ireland. The surname dates back to the late 13th Century (see below), and early recordings include the occasion in 1431 when O'Donnells are recorded in the Annals of the Four Masters as making a predatory expedition against the Mac Nultys of Tirhugh, County Donegal. From Derry, on the border of County Donegal, came Frank Joseph Mac Nulty (1872 - 1926), American labour leader, whose father Owen MacNulty was a veteran of the Civil War. Church recordings include Patricium McAnulty who was christened on December 15th 1758 in Drogheda, County Louth, whilst Mary McCinnulty who was a famine emigrant who left Ireland on the ship "Yorkshire" on September 15th 1846. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Teag MacNulty who was among the "distinguished slain" at the Battle of Desertcreagh in 1281.Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Messer Family Crest
Messer Family Crest
Recorded in many forms including Macer, Maser, Masser, Massier, Maysor, Measor, Messer, and others, this is an English surname but one of early French origins. It was first introduced at the famous Conquest of 1066, or very shortly thereafter and was reintroduced by the Huguenot Protestant refugees in the period after 1580, when the religious persecution of protestants became the norm in France. The name is occupational, derives from the word messier and describes a hayward, one who was responsible for the gathering of the winter hay, and the protection against loss. The French coat of arms is from the city of Lyon. It has the blazon of a gold field charged with a tree proper, a saw fessways in the act of cutting down the tree. Presumably this is an allegorical reference to harvesting, whilst the gold field represents the wealth of the harvest. Included in the early recordings is the one of Erkbald le Messer of Lincoln in 1180, whilst William le Messier is found in the Nottingham Rolls of 1187. The later forms include Roger Maysor christened at All Hallows Church, London Wall, on May 15th 1561, and Susenne Macer, who married Guillelmus Cognart at the French Huguenot Church, Threadneedle Street, on January 21st 1623. On February 25th 1730, Peter Maser married Magdalen Dupret at St Mary Le Bone, whilst on July 9th 1790, Sarah Measor married William Playstead at St Andrews Church, Soho, Westminster. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Roger Messer. This was dated 1172, in the Danelaw Rolls of Lincoln, during the reign of King Henry 11nd, 1154 - 1189. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Messier Family Crest
Messier Family Crest
This is a surname of early French origins, perhaps dating back to the conquest of 1066, or introduced shortly thereafter. It was also (see below) reintroduced by the Huguenot Protestant refugees in the period after 1580 when religious persecution became the norm in France. The name is occupational, it derives from "Messier" and describes a hayward, one who was responsible for the gathering of the winter hay, and the protection against loss. The Coat of Arms from Lyon, is one of the most unusual recorded showing a tree proper on a gold field, with a saw fessways in the act of cutting down the tree. Presumably this is an allegorical reference to harvesting, whilst the gold field represents the wealth of the harvest and the golden corn. In England the usual name spelling is Messer, although there are many variants. Included in the early recordings is Erkbald Le Messer of Lincoln in 1180, whilst William Le Messier is found in the Nottingham Rolls of 1187. The later forms include Roger Maysor, son of George Maysor, wife not recorded, christened at All Hallows Church, London Wall, on May 15th 1561, and Susenne Masure, who married Guillelmus Cognart at the French Huguenot Church, Threadneedle Street, on January 21st 1623. On February 25th 1730, Peter Maseres married Magdalen Dupret at St Mary Le Bone, whilst on July 9th 1790, Sarah Measor married William Playstead at St Andrews Church, Soho, Westminster. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Roger Messer, which was dated 1172, in the Danelaw Rolls of Lincoln, during the reign of King Henry 11, known as "The church builder," 1154 - 1189. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.
 
 
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Metcalf Family Crest
Metcalf Family Crest
This very interesting surname recorded in the spellings of Medcalf, Metcalf and Metcalfe, is English. It is chiefly recorded in the county of Yorkshire, and there have been claims that it represents the very first hereditary surname. This is arguable, but there is no doubt that it was one of the very first. It is probably topographical, but may be occupational, and in either case derives either from the Olde English pre 7th century word "mete" meaning food or meat, plus "cealf", a calf, with the translation of "a calf to be fattened for eating (at the end of the Summer)", or when the first element is written as "med" it may derive from "mead", and describe a pasture or meadow where calves were fattened. Early examples of the surname recording taken from authentic survivng rolls and charters of the medieval period include: John Medcalfe who appears in the register of the Freemen of the City of York in 1463, William Metcalf, married Marageret Stansfield at Kippax, Yorkshire, on October 12th 1596, and Michill Metcalfe of Norwich aged 45, his wife Sarah and eight children, who left England to settle in Boston, New England, in 1635. The first recorded spelling of the family name is possibly that of Adam Medecalf. This was dated 1301, in the Subsidy Rolls of Yorkshire, during the reign of King Edward 1st, 1272 - 1307. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
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Mills Family Crest
Mills Family Crest
This name is a medieval English or Scottish topographical surname, given originally to someone who lived near a mill, and is derived from the Middle English "mille, milne", mill, a development of the Olde English pre 7th Century "mylen(e)", itself from the Latin "molina", a derivative of "molere", to grind. The final "s" indicates a patronymic, i.e., "son of". The surname gradually came to be used as an occupational name for a worker at a mill, and indeed sometimes for the miller himself, a respected and important position in medieval communities, where the mill was a central part of the settlement. It was powered by water wind, or, sometimes, animals, and usually operated by an agent of the local landowner. The villagers were compelled to bring their corn to the miller to be ground into flour, and to pay for the service with a proportion of their grain. The modern surname can be found as Mill, Mills, Millis, Mille, Milne(s), Millman and Mullen. One Richard Mille appeared in the Hundred Rolls of Cambridgeshire in 1279. An interesting namebearer was George Mills (1808 - 1881), a builder of iron steam ships who became a journalist and started the "Glasgow Advertiser and Shipping Gazette" in 1857. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Richard de la Melle which was dated 1200, in the "Curia Regis Rolls of Sussex", during the reign of King John, known as "Lackland", 1199 - 1216. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Mitchell Family Crest
Mitchell Family Crest
Recorded in many forms including Machel, Matchell, Matsell, Mitchel, Mitchell, Michell, Mickle, Muckle and others, this is an surname of English and Scottish origins. Introduced into Western Europe by returning knights and pilgrims of the famous Crusades to free the Holy Land, it derives from the medieval Hebrew and Biblical name "Michel", meaning "He who is like the Lord". The name is first recorded in circa 1160, when one Michaelis de Areci appears in the Danelaw Documents of the city of London, and Michel de Whepstede in the Subsidy Tax rolls of Suffolk in 1327. The Royal Registers of England for the year 1219 have the entry of William Michel. He was paid three pence per day, probably now equivalent to 50 or $80, for keeping two of the Kings' wolfhounds. Other examples include Richard Mukel in the Hundred Rolls of the landowners of the county of Shropshire, in 1255, Agnes Mitchell who married Richard Freeman on June 24th 1582, at St. Dunstan's in the East, Stepney, city of London, whilst Fanny Matsell married George Phillips, at St Leonards Shoreditch in the city of London, on August 13th 1792. A coat of arms associated with the surname has the blazon of a black shield, charged with an escallop between three gold birds' heads erased. The first recorded spelling of the family name may be that of Gilbert Michel. This was dated 1205, in the Curia Regis Rolls of Northumberland, during the reign of King John of England, 1199 - 1216. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was sometimes known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Moreland Family Crest
Moreland Family Crest
Recorded in many forms as shown below, this is an Anglo-Scottish surname. It is either a locational name from any of the various places called Moreland, notably in the Borders region and in the former county of Kinross, or a topographical name for "a dweller on moor-land". This is from the pre 7th century Olde English "mor" meaning a marsh or fen, and "land". The surname dates back to the mid 13th Century, (see below), and other early recordings include Henry atte Morlonde in the Subsidy Rolls of Sussex in 1296, and William de Moreland in the Tax Subsidy olls of Yorkshire in 1327. The surname spellings include Moreland, Morlande, Morlan, Morlen Morlin, Morling, Marlen, Merlin, and others. Recordings from surviving church registers of the city of London include Mathewe Moreland, christened at St. Stephen's Coleman Street, on September 23rd 1579, Anne Marlen who married Roger Thorpe at All Hallows, London Wall, on April 22nd 1622, Francis Morlon who married John Henley at St Brides Fleet Street, on December 31st 1655, and Thomas Marling, a witnessat St Botolphs without Bishopgate, on September 29th 1795. The first recorded spelling of the family name may be that of Edith de la Morland. This was dated 1357, in the studies of Middle English Local Surnames, for the county of Somerset, during the reign of King Henry 111rd, 1216 - 1272. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was sometimes known as the Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Morgan Family Crest
Morgan Family Crest
This is a truly famous surname whose Gaelic-Celtic ancestry pre-dates Christianity. Originally, the name was purely personal and spelt as "Morcant", the change to Morgan being medieval. The exact meaning is uncertain but "sea chief" or "sea defender" are the generally accepted interpretations. The importance of the name is shown by its incorporation in the ancient Welsh kingdom of Glamorgan, a corrupt form of "Ap Morgan", the son of Morgan. The first true recording as a surname is however English (see below). In Wales the first recording may be Thomas Morgaine, Knight of Monmouth, in 1538, whilst in Scotland, one John Morgane was a burgess of Glasgow in 1419. In Ireland the name is popular in Leinster and Ulster, and in some cases is an Anglicization of Merrigan and Morahan, the first recording being that of Edward Morgane, of Dublin, on April 26th 1654. Not only does the name indicate a sea warrior, it is with the sea that the Morgan name has won most renown. Amongst these famous people was Sir Henry Morgan, Governor of Jamaica and the epitome of the privateering buccaneer of the 17th Century. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of John Morgan, which was dated 1214, in the "Curia Regis Rolls of Berkshire", during the reign of King John, known as "Lackland", 1199 - 1216. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Morton Family Crest
Morton Family Crest
Recorded in several forms including Morten, Morton, Moorton, Mourton, Moreton, Mairtoun, and Mirton, this interesting surname can be either English, Scottish or Irish. In all cases it is a locational surname, and if Scottish it originates from the village of Morton in Dumfriesshire, of from Mryrton (now Morton) in Fife. If English, it is from any of over twenty such places called either Moreton or Morton in the various English counties such as Berkshire, Cheshire, Devonshire, Dorset, Gloucestershire, Northamptonshire, Shropshire and Staffordshire, and all variously recorded in the famous Domesday Book of 1086. If Irish, its antecedents are English, the nameholders being descendants of early settlers. However spelt all share the same basic meaning and derivation which is "The settlement by the moor", from the Olde English pre 7th Century word "mor", with "tun", a settlement or farm. Amongst the many recordings in the early surviving registers and charters are those of Hugh de Mortun, given as being the prior of May, in Scotland in the year 1204, Robert de Morton of Nottingham in the Hundred Rolls of 1273, and Master Thomas Mirton, who was chaplain to the king of Scotland in 1422. The first recorded spelling of the family name anywhere in the world is probably that of Robert de Mortone, which was dated 1130, in the "Pipe Rolls" of Wiltshire, during the reign of King Henry 1st of England, known as "The Lion of Justice", 1100 - 1135. 
 
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Mossop Family Crest
Mossop Family Crest
This interesting and unusual surname is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is a locational name from some minor or unrecorded place, perhaps a "lost" village. There are an estimated seven to ten thousand villages and hamlets that have now disappeared from Britain since the 12th Century; the prime cause of these "disappearances" was the enforced "clearing" and dispersal of the former inhabitants to make way for sheep pastures at the height of the wool-trade in the 15th Century, and natural causes such as the Black Death of 1348, in which an eighth of the population perished. The original place is believed to have been situated in Northern England, because of the large number of early recordings in that region, and the derivation is from the Olde English pre 7th Century "mos", moss, bog, swamp, and "hop", a piece of enclosed land in the midst of fens; hence, "enclosed land in a swamp". It has also been suggested that the name is from Mosshope Fell in Dumfreisshire. Recordings of the surname from English Church Registers include: the marriage of Margaret Mossop and Thomas Lynaker at Bidston, Cheshire, on June 25th 1634, and the marriage of George Mossop and Jane Deeves on August 24th 1643, at St. Martin Pomeroy, London. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of John Mosowppe, which was dated August 8th 1615, a witness at the christening of his daughter, Anne, at Witton le Wear, Durham, during the reign of King James 1 of England and V1 of Scotland, 1603 - 1625. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Nerford Family Crest
Nerford Family Crest
 
 
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Neville Family Crest
Neville Family Crest
This great and noble surname is of Norman origin, introduced into England after the Conquest of 1066. It is a French locational name from "Neuville" in Calvados or "Neville" in Seine-Maritime, Normandy, both so called from the Old French "neu(f)" new, with "ville", a settlement. Locational names were originally given as a means of identification to those who left their village or place of origin to settle elsewhere. The Anglo-Norman family of Neville acquired the surname when Robert FitzMaldred, who came of age in 1195, married the heiress to Henry de Neville, from Neuville in Calvados; their son was known by his mother's surname. The Nevilles became extremely powerful during the Wars of the Roses, supporting each of the factions at various times; Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick (1428 - 1471), was nicknamed "the Kingmaker". They have since held the dukedom of Bedford, marquessate of Montagu, and earldoms of Salisbury, Westmorland, Warwick, Kent and Northumberland. In more recent years they have been Earls and Marquesses of Abergavenny. A Coat of Arms granted to the family is red and on a silver saltire a red rose, the Crest being out of a gold ducal coronet, a bull's head pied proper. The motto "Ne vile velis" translates as "Wish nothing base". The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Ralph de Neuilla, which was dated 1086, in the Domesday Book, during the reign of King William 1, known as "The Conqueror", 1066 - 1087. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Newcomb Family Crest
Newcomb Family Crest
This is a famous English surname. It is recorded in several spellings including Newcom, Newcomen, Newcomb, Newcombe, and Newcome. Of pre 7th century Olde English origins, it appears to be locational, and to originate from some recently inhabited valley or combe. However this does not appear to be the case. It would seem that the derivation is from the Olde English words 'niwe cumen', which literally translate as the stranger or newcomer. As such it would have been given as a descriptive nickname to a 'comer-in', at a time when labour movements were rare, and often banned by law. Nicknames of various sorts form one of the largest groups in the surnames listing for Europe, although they were more usually given in relation to some physical characteristic, with examples including Crookshank or Broadhead. With this surname early examples of the recordings taken from registers and charters include William Neucum in the Boldon book of County Durham in the year 1183, and Richard Newecume in the Pipe Rolls of Lincolnshire in 1195. The name is well recorded in the surviving registers of the diocese of Greater London, an example being that of Ann, the daughter of Benjamin and Frances Newcomb, who was christened at St. Giles Cripplegate, on March 20th 1683, whilst Thomas Newcomen (1667 - 1723) invented the modern steam engine in 1698. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Alan le Neucoument. This was dated 1175, also in the Pipe Rolls of Lincolnshire, during the reign of King Henry 11nd of England, 1154 - 1189. Throughout the centuries surnames in every country have continued to "develop," often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Niederberger Family Crest
Niederberger Family Crest
German and Swiss German: habitational name from any of various places named Niederberg, for example in North Rhine-Westphalia and the Rhineland Palatinate.  
 
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Norman Family Crest
Norman Family Crest
This interesting name originated either as an ethnic byname for Scandinavian settlers in England, who came to be known as Northmen or Normen, from the Olde English "Northmann" (plural "Northmenn"), meaning "men from the North", or as a post - Conquest name for someone from Normandy in the North of France. The derivation in this case is from the Old French "Normand" or "Normant", a Norman. Many of these Normans were themselves originally of Scandinavian origin, which makes for an interesting re-introduction of the name into England. The personal byname Norman, with its Latinized form "Normannus", was recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086, and continued in popularity as a personal name throughout the subsequent Centuries. The surname first emerges in the latter part of the 12th Century, (see below). Other early recordings include: John le Norman, (Warwickshire, 1221); Robert Northman, (Oxfordshire, 1279) and John Normand, (Roxburghshire, 1303). George Warde Norman, (1793 - 1882), a respected writer on finance, who was director of the Bank of England from 1821 - 1872. A Coat of Arms granted to the Norman family of Somerset is a barry nebulee of eight silver and red on a black bend three escallops proper. The Crest is a cubit arm embowed in armour proper, pommelled and hilted gold, and the Motto, "Pro fide strictus", translates as "Bound for faith". The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Hugo Norman, which was dated 1171, in the "Pipe Rolls of Wiltshire", during the reign of King Henry 11, known as "The Builder of Churches", 1154 - 1189. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Normandie Coat of Arms
Normandie Coat of Arms
 
 
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Normanville Family Crest
Normanville Family Crest
 
 
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Norris Family Crest
Norris Family Crest
Recorded in several forms including Noris, Norris, Norres, Norriss, Norrish, and dialectals such as Nares, Naris, and Nearise, this is an Anglo-French surname. It has three possible origins that have become intertwined over the centuries. The first and most generally applicable to modern-day bearers of the name is ethnic. It derives from the Norman-French pre 10th century word "norreis", meaning a northerner, or more pragmatically a Norseman or what we now know as a Viking. The dukedom of Normandy in France means the place of the North men, since it was settled by Vikings in the 8th century a.d. When the Norans invaded England in 1066, they were often fighting their own long lost relatives who were by then English. The second possible origin is topographical and English. It was a description for someone who lived "at the north house". This would be one on the north side of a village or settlement. The name is a fused form of 'Nor-hus' from the pre 7th century words "nor", meaning north, and "hus", a house. An early recording from this origin is that of Adam de Norhuse of Essex in the year 1206. The third possible origin is French and occupational. Probably introduced after the Norman Conquest of 1066, it originates from the French word "norrice", and describes a nurse or tender of the sick.. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Robert Norreis. This was dated 1148, in the "Winton Rolls" of the county of Hampshire, during the reign of King Stephen of England, 1135 - 1154. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling 
 
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Olney Family Crest
Olney Family Crest
This most interesting and unusual surname is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is an English locational name from "Olney", in Buckinghamshire and Northamptonshire, the former appeared as "Ollaneg" in 979 in the Saxon Diplomatic Codex, while the latter was recorded as "Anelegh" in 1220, in the Forest Charters. The placename in Buckinghamshire derives its name from the Olde English pre 7th Century personal name "Olla", plus "-eg", island, hence, "Olla's Island", while Olney in Northamptonshire means "lonely glade", from the Olde English "ana", lonely, and "leah", clearing in a wood, a glade. During the Middle Ages, when migration for the purpose of job-seeking was becoming more common, people often took their former village name as a means of identification, thus resulting in a wide dispersal of the surname. John de Olneye was mentioned in the Hundred Rolls of Oxfordshire in 1273. The marriage of Nathaniel Olney and Mary Davis was recorded at St. Mary le Strand, London, on November 1st 1621. In the modern idiom, the surname is also found as Olner. A coat of Arms was granted to a namebearer who was Lord Mayor of London in 1446, which depicts five bezants in saltire between two silver flaunches, each charged with a black lion rampant. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Walter le Olnei, which was dated 1273, in the Oxfordshire Hundred Rolls, during the reign of King Edward 1, known as "The Hammer of the Scots", 1272 - 1307. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Ormsby Family Crest
Ormsby Family Crest
 
 
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Paris Family Crest
Paris Family Crest
Recorded as Paris, Parrish, and Parish, there are at least three possible sources for this early medieval surname. The first is that it is locational, and as such describes either somebody from the French capital of Paris, itself a derivation from the Gaulish tribe of the "Parisii", or it maybe English from one of the villages called Paris, such as Paris, near Huddersfield, in West Yorkshire. The second possible origin is that it may derive from the rare medieval given name Paris, which could be associated with the Trojan prince of the same name. This is ancient enough, but it has been traced to an original Ulyrian personal name "Voltuparis" meaning "hawk". Thirdly it may derive from the pre medieval word "parysche", the modern parish, and describe a religious division. Early examples of recordings include: Willemus de Parysch in the Poll Tax rolls for Yorkshire in the year 1379, and the christening of Winnifride Parrish on October 1st 1602, at the Holy Trinity in the Minories. In the earliest registers of the New England colonies, Thomas Parrish was recorded as living in "Elizabeth Cittie, Virginiea", on February 16th 1623. Perhaps the earliest recording of thesurname is that of Lotyn de Paris of the county of Lincolnshire. He appears in the Hundred Rolls for the year 1273. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was usually known as the Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Patching Family Crest
Patching Family Crest
This unusual name is locational and derives for the Village of Patching in Sussex or Patching Hall in Essex. The origin is Olde English pre 9th century and the name means 'The Place of the Paecci Family' - with 'Paecci' probably being a derivative of the Olde French 'Pece' meaning a farmer or small land holder - one who held a piece of land. Locational names were given either to the Lord of the Manor, or to farmer inhabitants who moved to another area. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Elena de Paccing which was dated 1327, The Pipe Rolls of Sussex during the reign of King Edward 111 The Father of the Navy. 1327 - 1377 Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Paunceforte Family Crest
Paunceforte Family Crest
 
 

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