Family Crest


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Berewick Family Crest
Berewick Family Crest
 
 
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Bigod Family Crest
Bigod Family Crest
 
 
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Billet Family Crest
Billet Family Crest
 
 
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Billing Family Crest
Billing Family Crest
This interesting surname is of Anglo-Saxon origin and has a number of possible sources. Firstly, it may be a patronymic form of Bill, itself a short form of any of the various Germanic personal name such as Billard and Billaud, or of the Olde English pre 7th Century byname "Bill(a)", from "bill" sword, halberd. The first mentioned name is composed of the Germanic elements "bil", sword, with "hard", brave, hardy, and the second has as its component elements "bil" (as above) with "wald", rule. Billings may also be of locational origin either from Billing in Northamptonshire, recorded as "Bel(l)inge" in the Domesday Book of 1086, and as "Billinges" in the 1223 Pipe Rolls of that county, or from Billinge in Lancashire appearing as "Billing" in the Pipe Rolls of Lancashire, dated 1202. Both places are named from the Olde English pre 7th Century patronymic "Billingas", from "Bill(a)", with "ingas" meaning "the sons, or dependants, of"; hence, "(the settlement) of Billa's people". One, John Billings was entered in the "Register of Oxford University", in 1581. A Coat of Arms granted to the Billings family of Bedfordshire is red, a cross between four silver crosses crosslet fitchee. An arm embowed vested holding a covered cup is on the Crest. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Osebertus Billing, which was dated 1188, in the "Calendar of Abbot Samson of Bury St. Edmunds", Suffolk, during the reign of King Henry 11, known as "The Builder of Churches", 1154 - 1189. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling 
 
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Birchard Family Crest
Birchard Family Crest
 
 
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Bishop Family Crest
Bishop Family Crest
This early and very interesting surname, popular throughout Europe, is of Ancient Greek, pre Christian, origins. It derives from the word "episkopos", translating as the overseer, from the elements "epi", meaning on or over, plus "skopein", to look. The early Christians adopted the word for the headman of their local communities, and from the 4th century a.d. it was applied to a religious leader. Derivatives of "episkopos" include for example "obispo", in Spanish, and "bischof" in German, and "yepiskop" in Russian.. However spelt, and there are over one hundred forms ranging from Bisp, Evesque and Vesque, to Vesco, Bischop, Yepiskopov, and Piscotti, the surname did not refer to a bishop as such. It was either occupational, and described somebody who served in the household of a bishop, or it was a nickname for a person who played the part of a bishop in the travelling theatres of the medieval period. In England there was the strange custom of electing a "boy bishop" on St. Nicholas's Day, the 6th of December, and some nameholders may well derive from that source. The earliest of all surnames and hence their recordings are in England and Germany. These date from the 12th century and examples include Thurstan le Byssop, of the county of Essex in the year 1240, and Berchtoldus Episcopus of Oberweiler, Germany, in 1296, and Haintz der Pischoffer of Tiefenbach, Germany, in 1396. The first recorded spelling of the surname anywhere in the world is believed to be that of Lefwinus Bissop, which was dated 1166, in the Pipe Rolls of the city of Nottingham, England. This was during the reign of King Henry 11, known as "The Builder of Churches", 1154 - 1189 
 
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Bissell Family Crest
Bissell Family Crest
This unusual name has two possible origins, the first of which is locational, from the place called 'Bossall' in North Yorkshire. It is first recorded as 'Boscele' and 'Bosciale' in the Domesday Book of 1086, and means 'Botsige's haugh', from the old English pre 7th Century personal name 'Botsige', and 'halh', which in the north of England became 'haugh', a piece of flat alluvial land by the side of a river. The second possible origin for the name Bus(s)well is from the surname 'Bissell', a metonymic occupational name for a corn factor or merchant, one who measured corn. The derivation is from the Middle English 'busshell', meaning 'bushel', measure of corn. There are a number of variants of the name, including Busswell, Bissell, Biswell, Bishell, Boshell and Bushill'. Early recordings include Alan Buseel of Yorkshire in 1140, and Richard Bussell of Bedford in the year 1200. Church recordings include Thomas Bushell of London on July 3rd 1586, and Major George Bushell of Barbados on January 9th 1685. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Rodger Buissel. which was dated 1086, in the Domesday Book, Somerset. during the reign of King William 1, known as the Conqueror, 1066 - 1087. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Black Famly Crest
Black Famly Crest
This very old and famous surname, equally popular in Scotland and England, has at least two possible origins, the first being a nickname given by the invading Angles and Saxons to the native Celts and Britons who were darker-haired and darker-skinned than themselves. There is an ancient fable that Wulfricus Niger, otherwise known as Wulfric the Black circa 980, received his name after blackening his face in order to pass undetected through his enemies. The second possible origin is as a shortened form of Black-Smith, a worker in cold metals, as distinct from a White (Smith), one who worked in hot metals. The surname was popular in Scotland from the 15th Century. Adam Black of Edinburgh (1784 - 1874), a publisher, acquired the rights to the Encyclopedia Britannica in 1827. No less than ten Coats of Arms were granted to families of this name. Those borne by Gilbert Black, Dean of the Guild of Aberdeen (1672), depict a black saltire between a red mullet in chief and a red crescent in base, on a silver shield with a black chief. A demi lion proper is on the Crest, and the Motto, "Non Crux, sed lux", translates as, "Not the cross, but its light". The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Wulfhun des Blaca which was dated circa 901, in the "Old English Bynames Register", during the reign of King Edward, known as "The Elder", 899 - 924 A.D. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Blackaby Family Crest
Blackaby Family Crest
Recorded as Blackby, Blackaby, Blackeby, Blackerby and possibly others, this is an English residential surname with Viking antecendents. It derives from residence at Black's Farm, as in the pre 7th century Old English 'Blak atta bi' with 'bi' being the Scandanavian word for a farm, and 'Blak' curiously meaning either 'black' or 'white'. If the meaning was black it was probably an ethnic name for a Celt, if 'white' it may have described a Norseman or Dane, since these were traditionally fair haired. It may also originate from a 'lost' medieval village called Blackeberwe' It is believed that some seven thousand British Isles surnames originate from now 'lost' locations. Richard Blackerby (1574 - 1648), the vicar of Great Thurlow in Essex, was a prominent puritan and a close supporter of Oliver Cromwell. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Simon de Blackeberwe. This was dated 1275 in the Pipe Rolls of the county of Devon, during the reign of King Edward 1st of England. He was known to history as 'The Hammer of the Scots', and reigned from 1272 to 1307. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was sometimes known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling 
 
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Bluck Family Crest
Bluck Family Crest
This interesting and unusual name is possibly a variant of "Black" or "Blake", themselves deriving from two similar Olde English names which have opposite meanings, i.e. "bloec or blac", black, probably describing someone with dark hair, and "blac", pale or white, used to describe a fair-haired person, perhaps a viking or someone of Scandinavian origin. The name is largely confined to the Midlands, and seems to have originated in south-west Shropshire. It was first found recorded in Wistanstow, Shropshire, in the 13th Century as "Blyke". By the mid 15th Century it had taken the form "Bluck", with occasional variations such as "Blooke" and "Blowke". William, son of Johis Blucke, was christened at Bishop's Castle, Shropshire, on February 28th 1561, while Ann Jones married william Blucke at St. Leonard's, Bridgnorth, Shropshire, on February 22nd 1576. At Allhallows, London Wall, London, on December 3rd 1620, the marriage of John Blucke and Margaret Esingwood took place. Aaron, son of Timothy and Mary Bluck, was christened at Maidstone, Shropshire, on March 21st 1734. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of John le Blyk, which was dated 1328, in "Kirby's Quest for Somerset", during the reign of King Edward 111, known as "The Father of the Navy", 1327 - 1377. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Boreman Family Crest
Boreman Family Crest
 
 
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Bostock Family Crest
Bostock Family Crest
Recorded as Bastock, Bistick, Bostock, Bostick, and probably others, this is an English surname. However spelt it is locational from the village of Bostock in the county of Cheshire. First recorded as "Botestoch" in the famous Domesday Book of 1086, and as "Bostoc" in the pipe rolls of 1260, the placename derives from the Olde English pre 7th century personal name "Bota", originally, perhaps a nickname from the word bot meaning a butt or cask, with the second element of "stocc". This has various meanings such as simply a place, or a council meeting place, a look out post, or even a holy place. Locational surnames are usually 'from' names. That is to say names given to people after they left their original homes. Spelling being at best indifferent and local accents very thick, lead to the development of alternative spellings. In this case early recordings include those of David de Bostok, in Earwaker's "History of Cheshire" in 1428, as was Philip Bostocke of Bostocke, gentleman, in 1634. Many bearers of the name claim descent from a certain Sir Gilbert of Bostock, who lived in the 12th Century. His great grandson fought at the Battle of Evesham in 1265. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was sometimes known as the Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling 
 
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Bourne Family Crest
Bourne Family Crest
This ancient name is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is one of the earliest topographical surnames existing today. The derivation is from the Old English pre 7th Century "burna, burne", spring, stream, which was originally used as a topographic name for someone who lived beside a stream. In the south of England the term was gradually replaced by the Old English "broc", brook, and came to be restricted in meaning to an intermittently flowing stream, especially one that flowed only in winter; this meaning of "bourn" is still found in the dialects of Kent, Surrey and Wiltshire. In the North, However, the word "burn" is still used for a stream. Some instances of the modern surname, found as Bown(e), Burn(e), Burns, Born(e), Boorne, Burner and Bo(u)rner, may be locational in origin, from a place named from being beside a stream. Among the recordings of the name in London is that of the marriage of John Bourne and Anne Craddocke, at St. Peter's, Cornhill, on June 24th 1565. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Godric aet Burnan, which was dated 1044, Old English Bynames (Kent), during the reign of King Edward the Confessor, 1042 - 1066. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling 
 
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Bradborne Family Crest
Bradborne Family Crest
This interesting name is of Anglo-Saxon origin and is a locational surname derived from the village of Bradburne in the county of Derbyshire. It is composed of the Old English elements biad meaning broad or wide, and burna meaning stream. The name is first recorded in its earlier form of Bradeburne in the Domesday Book 1086, and recorded as Bradeburn in the Assize Records of 1281. This surname is particularly well recorded in Derbyshire, and a Coat of Arms was granted to John de Bradburne in the reign of Edward 111 1327 - 1377, consisting of a Silver Shield charged with Three Blue Palets and a Chief, in Red. One Robert Bradborn was christened at St. Lawrence Jewry and St. Mary Magdalene, Milk Street, London on August 15th 1555, while one Richard Bradborne married Elizabeth Warde on February 19th 1565, at St. Giles Cripplegate, London. One, Samuel Bradburn 1751 - 1816, a Methodist preacher and minister was one of the greatest preachers of his day. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Richard Bradborne, which was dated 1540, in the Register of University of Oxford, during the reign of King Henry V111, known as "Good King Hal", 1509 - 1547. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Bramhall Family Crest
Bramhall Family Crest
Recorded in a number of spellings including Brammar, Brammer, Brammall, Bramall, Bramhall, Bramah, Bramble, Bremer, Bremmer and Brummell, this is an English surname. It is locational from either one of the places in Cheshire and Yorkshire called "Bramall". Originating from the Olde English pre 7th century words "brom healh", both places share the same meaning. This is literally the "broom-covered hollow", but a more pragmatic meaning is a sheltered or hidden area surrounded by gorse. Gorse was often grown as a defensive protective ring against attack by marauding outlaws and cattle thieves. Both villages are recorded in the famous Domesday Book of 1066 which in itself indicates that a thousand years ago, the places had some importance. The name spellings ending in the suffix 'er' indicate 'one from Bramall'. Early examples of the surname recording include Jane Bremer, who married John Cooke at St Margarets church, Westminster, on January 24th 1585, Hugh Bramall of Nether Peover, Cheshire whose will was registered in Chester in 1628, and Mary Brammar who married Noel Canfield at the church of St Bartholomew, The Great, city of London, on April 13th 1722.. The first recorded spelling of the family name is believed to be that of Robert de Bramhal. This recording was dated 1221, in the Assize Rolls of the county of Worcestershire 
 
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Braylsford Family Crest
Braylsford Family Crest
 
 
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Bretagne Family Crest
Bretagne Family Crest
 
 
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Brett Family Crest
Brett Family Crest
This interesting surname is of French origin, and is an ethnic name for a Breton. The Bretons were originally Celts driven from South West England to North West France in the 6th Century by invading Anglo-Saxons. Some returned with the army of William the Conqueror in the Invasion of 1066, and many of those then settled in East Anglia where the English surname Brett is now widespread. Occasionally, the name may derive from the Celtic speaking people of Strathclyde, Scotland, who were known as "Bryttas" or "Brettas" until the 13th Century. In the modern idiom the variants include: Britt, Breton, Bretton and De Brett (of Breton). Amongst the early recordings in London is the marriage of William Brett and Johanna Hayward in 1559, and in Norfolk, of Richard Brett and Elizabeth Leive on September 23rd 1552, at St. George's, Colegate, Norwich. A Coat of Arms granted to a Brett family is silver, on a blue chevron three bezants. The Crest is a silver lion's gamb erect and erased grasping a wolf's head erased proper. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Edward Brit, which was dated 1086, in the Domesday Book of Devon, during the reign of King William 1, known as "The Conqueror", 1066 - 1087. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.  
 
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Brisley Family Crest
Brisley Family Crest
Recorded as Brisly, Brisley, Brislee and no doubt others, this is an English surname. It is locational from the village of Brisley in the County of Norfolk. First recorded as Bruselea in the year 1105, and later in 1199 as Brisele, the derivation is from the ancient words 'briosa-legh' meaning the place (legh) infested by gad flies! Norfolk in East Anglia, being in the main fen country and low lying, was a natural source of insect life, but they must have been a major pest to have a village named after them. Before the 14th century little agricultural draining was carried out, but when it happened it is perhaps not surprising that East Anglia was the region chosen. As a result Brisley lost its flies, or most of them. The surname however is well recorded both in Norfolk itself and during the same period of the 16th century, London. This suggests that the village may have been "cleared" during this time to facilitate sheep farming, and most of the inhabitants driven off to seek their futures elsewhere. Early examples of the surname recording taken from surviving church registers include: Edward Brisleye, the son of John Brisleye, christened at St Peters church, Cornhill, in the city of London, on June 14th 1540, during the reign of King Henry V111 of England, and Thomas Brisley, who married Bridget Graye at St Giles church, Norwich, county of Norfolk, on May 1st 1606. 
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Brown Family Crest
Brown Family Crest
Recorded in many spellings from Brown, Broune, and De Bruyn, to Brauner, Bruni and Brunet, this ancient and prolific surname derives, from a pre 7th century Germanic and Anglo-Saxon word "brun" or the Olde Norse personal name "Bruni". Originally this name would probably have been a nationlistic or tribal nickname for a person with a brown complexion or hair, although it may also have referred to someone who habitually wore brown clothing, such as a monk or cleric. The baptismal name as Brun or the latinized Brunus, was a popular name in the period upto the introduction of surnames in the 12th century, see below. Irish name holders derive from 12th century Norman sources. In the west the Browne's are the descendants of a knight called " Hugo le Brun", amd form one of the ancient "Tribes of Galway", as recorded in the "Annals of the nine kings". The Browne's of Killarney form a separate branch and are descended from a later Elizabethan settler. Amongst the early surname recordings are those of Hugh Bron of Stafford, England, in the year 1274, and Hugo Brun of Erfurt, Germany, in 1407. Christopher Browne is recorded as being one of the very first settlers in the new American colonies. In the very first listing of the colonists of New England he is shown to be "living in Virginea, on February 16th 1623".The first recorded spelling of the family name anywhere in the world is probably that of William le Brun, which was dated 1169, in the Pipe Rolls of the county of Northumberland, England. This was during the reign of King Henry 11, known as "The church builder", 1154 - 1189.  
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Browne Family Crest
Browne Family Crest
This famous surname as Browne is much associated with Ireland. It originates from the Olde English, Norse-Viking, and Anglo-Saxon pre 7th century word "brun". It was originally a nickname for either a person of brown hair or complexion, and possibly nationalistic or tribal,or for one who habitually wore brown clothing. If the latter, the nickname may refer to a member of a holy order, many of whom wore brown as a sort of uniform. By the 10th century "Brun" had become a popular baptismal name throughout mainland Britain, and as such is recorded in the 1086 Domesday Book. The first surname recordings are about a century later at the very begining of surname creation, making it one of the most ancient on the listings. Amongst the early recordings of interest are those of Anthony Browne, the 1st Lord Montague (1526 - 1592), whilst in Ireland the Galway Browne's, the Lords Oranmore, are descendants of a 12th Century Anglo-Norman invader called "Le Brun", and the Brownes of Killarney, the Lords Kenmare, are descended from an Elizabethan settler. Amongst the very earliest of settlers to the new colonies of America was Edward Browne, who emigrated to Virginia from London in September 1635. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of William le Brun, which was dated 1169, in the Northumberland county pipe rolls. This was during the reign of King Henry ll of England, known as "The church builder", 1154 - 1189. 
 
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Brugge Family Crest
Brugge Family Crest
 
 
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Bruyn Family Crest
Bruyn Family Crest
 
 
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Brydges Coat of Arms
Brydges Coat of Arms
 
 
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Brydges Family Crest
Brydges Family Crest
 
 
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Buck Family Crest
Buck Family Crest
This interesting surname with variant spelling Bucke, has a number of possible origins. Firstly, it may derive from the Old English pre 7th Century "bucca" a male goat or "bucc" a male deer, and would have originated as a nickname for a man with some fancied resemblance to the animal, e.g. strength, speed or sturdiness. One, Herbert Bucke is recorded in the Pipe Rolls of Sussex (1195), and Robert Buc appears in the Pipe Rolls of Suffolk (1200). The surname may also be metonymic for longer occupational names, e.g. Roger le Bucmanger, recorded in the Assize Court Rolls of Warwickshire (1221), was a dealer in bucks or venison, and Walter Bucswayn, noted in the Subsidy Rolls of Somerset (1327), was a goat herd. Another possibility is that the name is of topographical origin, deriving from the Old English "boc" a beech tree, and would have referred to someone living by a prominent beech tree. Peter atte Buck, registered in the Subsidy Rolls of Suffolk, (1327). In 1549, Margaret Buck married Patrick Colley at St. Mary Woolnoth and on December 10th 1549, Lucas Buck was christened at St. Margaret's, Westminster. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Godwig se Bucca, which was dated circa 1055, Old English Byname Register, Somerset, during the reign of King Edward the Confessor, 1042 - 1066. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
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Bulkeley Family Crest
Bulkeley Family Crest
 
 
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Burgess Family Crest
Burgess Family Crest
This interesting surname is of Old French origin, and derives from the Middle English "burge(i)s", a development of the Old French "burgeis" meaning inhabitant and freeman of a fortified town, especially one with municipal rights and duties. Burgesses generally had tenure of land or buildings from a landlord by "burgage". In medieval England burgage involved the payment of a fixed money rent. In Scotland it involved payment in service, guarding the town. The surname dates back to the early 12th Century (see below), and early recordings include Ralph le1 Burgeis (1195), in the Pipe Rolls of Sussex, and Philip Burges (1220), in the Cartulary of Oseney Abbey, Oxford. Variations in the spelling of the surname include Burgis, Burgise and Borges. London Church Registers record the marriages of Davye Burges to Agnes Taylor on January 27th 1582, at St. Thomas the Apostle, and Robert Parrin Burgess to Mary Langford on February 10th 1750, at St. Bartholomew the Great. A Coat of Arms granted to a Burgess family is blue, a fesse between a crescent in chief and a rose in base, all gold. The Crest is a gold fleur-de-lis. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Geoffrey Burgeis, which was dated 1115, in the "Winton Rolls of Hampshire", during the reign of King Henry 1, known as "The Lion of Justice", 1100 - 1135. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling 
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Burlingame Family Crest
Burlingame Family Crest
Recorded in a wide range of spellings including Barling, Berling, Burling, Buerling, Birlingham, Burlingame, and Burlingham, this is usually an English surname. It is locational from a village in the county of Worcestershire called Birlingham, or a similarly named village called Birling, in the county of Kent. The Worcester village is first recorded in the famous Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, sometimes called "The first newspaper," in the year 972 a.d., as Byrlingahamm, the homestead of the Byr people, whilst the Kent village is even older. It is recorded in 788 a.d. as Boerlingas, which may refer to a pig farm, or to a tribe called the Boers. Locational surnames are usually "from" names. That is to say names given to people after they left their original homes to move elsewhere, probably in search of work. It was, and to some extent it remains, that one of the easiest ways to identify a stranger, was to call him, or sometimes her, by the name of the place from whence they came. Spelling being at best erratic, and local accents very thick, soon lead to the development of alternative or "sounds like" spellings. Early examples of the surname recordings taken from surviving registers of the diocese of Greater London include: Dorite Burling, christened at St Peters Westcheap, on January 15th 1561, Henry Burlingham, who married Marie Barrett at St Anns Blackfriars on July 26th 1590, and Mary Burlingame, who married John Hall, at St. Mary Pattens, on July 7th 1644. Anson Burlingame was an early American ambassador to China. Famous for making agreements without any reference to his own government, he died in St Petersburg, Russia, in 1869
 
 
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Bushnell Family Crest
Bushnell Family Crest
Recorded in the spellings of Bushell, Bushnell, Busswell, Bushel, Bishell, Bishwell, and other forms, this is an English surname of two possible medieval origins. It may be locational, and if so derives from a place called Bossall in North Yorkshire. Bossall is first recorded as Boscele and Bosciale in the famous Domesday Book of 1086, and means 'Botsige's haugh', from the old English pre 7th Century personal name 'Botsige', and 'halh', which in the north of England became 'haugh', a piece of flat alluvial land by the side of a river. The second possible origin is as a transposed spelling of the surname Bissell, itself a metonymic occupational name for a corn factor or merchant, one who measured corn. The derivation is from the word "busshell", a ancient measure of corn still used occasionally in agriculture. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Rodger Buissel, believed to have been a corn merchant, and dated 1086, in the Domesday Book for the county of Somerset. This was during the reign of King William 1st, known as "The Conqueror", 1066 - 1087. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Butler Family Crest
Butler Family Crest
This famous aristocratic surname is of Norman-French origins, and is one of the very few to be accepted as being pre-1066 in origin and recording, and even rarer still to be recorded in France itself. It is in a sense job descriptive, deriving the Olde French 'bouteillier' and meaning "one who supplies the bottles" but more specifically the wine. However 'Bouteillier'in the surname sense defines status in a royal or at least noble, household, along with the Marshall (Master of the Horse), The Steward (Head of the Estate), The (dis)Spencer (Head of Provisions) and the Bouteillier or Butler (Master of the Pantry). That the original 'Butlers' were much more than servants of any sort is shown by the fact that when Theodore Fitzwalter accompanied King Henry 11 on his conquest of Ireland in 1171, he was not only appointed 'Chief Butler of Ireland' but he subsequently adopted 'Butler' as his surname. In England and Ireland no less than ninety four Coats of Arms have been granted to Boteler and Butler, the first being to Robert de Pincerna, butler to Randolf, Earl of Chester, in 1158, and the first of the Butlers of Cheshire. This original and ancient arms has the blazon of a red field, a bend between three goblets, all gold. The Butler's were also amongst the first into the new American Colonies, Francis Butler, aged 18, being recorded as a settler at 'Elizabeth Cittie, Virginea'in January 1624. He arrived on the ship 'Bonaventure' and was a member of the governors guard, history repeating itself. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Hugo Buteiller, which was dated 1055, The calendar of preserved ancient documents of France, during the reign of King Henry 1 of France, 1031 - 1060. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Calkins Family Crest
Calkins Family Crest
 
 
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Calston Family Crest
Calston Family Crest
 
 
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Calverley Family Crest
Calverley Family Crest
This unusual name is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is a locational surname deriving from the place called Calveley in Cheshire, north west of Crewe. The placename is recorded as "Calueleg" in the Chartulary of the Abbey of St. Werburgh, Chester, in circa 1235, and as "Calveleye" in the County Court, City Court and Eyre Rolls of Chester of 1287. The name means "pasture for calves", derived from the Olde English pre 7th Century "calf, cealf", calf, with "leah", in the specialized meaning of meadow, pasture-land; the usual sense is an open place in a wood, a glade. In some instances, the surname Calveley may be a variant form of the name Calverley, which derives from a place so called in Yorkshire, or from Calverleigh in Devonshire. A notable bearer of the name was Sir Hugh de Calveley (deceased 1393), who commanded the "free-lances" in the war with Brittany, 1341 - 1364, and joined the Black Prince in 1367; after a long and distinguished career he founded a college at Bunbury in Cheshire, in 1385. Recordings of the name from Cheshire Church Registers include the marriage of Roger Calveley and Margrett Lowe, on September 26th 1619, at Prestbury. A Coat of Arms granted to the family depicts a red fesse between three black calves on a silver shield. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Christiana de Kalverle, which was dated 1216, in the "Northumberland Book of Fees", during the reign of King Henry 111, known as "The Frenchman", 1216 - 1272. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Cawood Family Crest
Cawood Family Crest
This interesting surname is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is a locational name from either of two places thus called. Cawood in Lancashire was recorded as "Kawode" in the 1225 Cockersand Chartulary, and Cawood in the West Riding of Yorkshire was recorded as "Cawuda" in the Saxon Chartulary (972), and as "Cawude" in the 1184 Pipe Rolls. Both placenames share the same meaning and derivation, which is from the Olde English pre 7th Century "ca", jackdaw, with "wudu", wood; hence "jackdaw wood". During the Middle Ages when migration for the purpose of job-seeking was becoming more common, people often took their former village name as a means of identification, thus resulting in a wide dispersal of the name. The surname is first recorded in the latter half of the 14th Century (see below). Johannes de Cawode is listed as a Freeman of York in 1383. On July 22nd 1571, Robert Cawood married Elizabeth Campson at Worsborough, Yorkshire, and Thomas, son of Johne Cawood, was christened on September 25th 1575, at Halifax, Yorkshire. One of the earliest settlers in the New World was Richard Cawood (22 years), who departed for the Barbadoes in April 1635. A Coat of Arms granted to the family is a shield divided per chevron embattled black and silver, with three harts' heads cabossed within a bordure per fesse all counterchanged, the bordure charged with ten trefoils. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Willelmus de Cawod, which was dated 1370, in the "Poll Tax Returns of Yorkshire" during the reign of King Edward 111, known as "The Father of the Navy", 1327 - 1377. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Channon Family Crest
Channon Family Crest
This interesting and unusual name is of Old French and early medieval English origin, and is a chiefly West Country variant of the surname Cannon. This is a "nickname" surname given to someone who worked at a clergy house, or who was given the name from his dignified or clerical behaviour, or perhaps to a clergyman living with others in a clergy house. The derivation is from the Old Norman French "canonie, canoine", or in the case of Channon, from the central French form "chanun". These terms were introduced into English by the Normans after the Conquest of 1066, and became "canun", canon, in Middle English; the ultimate derivation is from the Latin "canonicus", a derivative of "canon" rule, discipline, from the Greek "kanon", rule, measure. One Nicholas le Chanone is recorded in the 1332 Staffordshire Subsidy Rolls, and among the recordings of the name in Devonshire is that of the marriage of John Channon and Margery Munday, at St. Petrock's, in Exeter, on November 16th 1606. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Reginald Canun, which was dated 1177, The Cambridgeshire Pipe Rolls, during the reign of King Henry 11, "The Builder of Churches", 1154 - 1189. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Chapin Family Crest
Chapin Family Crest
 
 
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Chase Family Crest
Chase Family Crest


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This interesting surname, of early medieval English origin, is either a metonymic occupational name for a huntsman, or a nickname for an exceptionally skilled huntsman, deriving from the Middle English "chase", meaning "hunt", Old French "chaceur, chaceour", hunter. These were given in the first instance with reference to occupation or to a variety of characteristics, such as physical attributes or peculiarites. The surname dates back to the early 14th Century (see below), and John Chase was recorded in the 1393 Register of the Freemen of the City of York. Recordings from London Church Registers include: the christening of Margery, daughter of Thomas and Catherine Chase, on December 12th 1545, at St. Abbots, Kensington; the christening of Henry, son of Richard and Joan Chase, in 1569, at Willesden; and the marriage of John Chase and Ales Hammon on January 4th 1567, at St. Mary Aldermary. An interesting namebearer, recorded in the "Dictionary of National Biography", was John Chase (1810 - 1879), a water-colour painter, who exhibited chiefly architectural views between 1826 and 1878. A Coat of Arms granted to the family depicts four gold crosses crosslet, two and two, on a canton of the same a blue lion passant, all on a red shield. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Robert Chace, which was dated 1327, in the "Subsidy Rolls of Essex", during the reign of King Edward 111, known as "The Father of the Navy", 1327 - 1377. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling 
 
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Chatham Family Crest
Chatham Family Crest
 
 
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Childrey Family Crest
Childrey Family Crest
English: habitational name from Childrey in Oxfordshire, which is named for Childrey Brook. This is probably ‘stream (Old English rith) of Cilla (masculine) or Cille (feminine)’, but the first element could alternatively be Old English cille ‘spring’. The surname has died out in England. 
 
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Clague Family Crest
Clague Family Crest
This is an anglicized form of the Olde Gaelic Mac Liaig(h). The Gaelic prefix "mac" means "son of", plus the personal byname Liaigh meaning "physician" or "healer". The surname is first recorded in the early 11th Century, (see below). One, Gilla MacLiag is mentioned in A.W. Moore's, "Manx Names" under the date 1173. The forms Claige, Claque and Clague, appearing in Church Registers of the Isle of Man from 1601 onwards, result from the fusion of the "c" in "mac" with the personal name Liag, later written as Laque and Lague. On February 27th 1624 a daughter was born to Robert Claque of Marown, and on July 4th 1698 Mary Clague, an infant, was christened in Braddan. The marriage of Alice Clague and John Cubon was recorded in Braddan on July 4th 1710. Clegg, a further anglicized form of the name emerged in the 19th Century. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of MacLiag, which was dated 1014 - Early Records of the Isle of Man, during the reign of King Ethelred, The Unready of England, 978 - 1016. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling 
 
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Clark Family Crest
Clark Family Crest
This long-established surname is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is from a medieval occupational name for a scribe or secretary, or for a member of a minor religious order. The word "clerc", from the Olde English pre 7th Century "cler(e)c", priest, originally denoted a member of a religious order only, but since the clergy of minor orders were allowed to marry and so found families, the surname could become established. It should also be noted that during the Middle Ages virtually the only people who were able to read and write were members of religious orders and it was therefore natural that the term "clark" or "clerk" would come to be used of any literate man, particularly the professional secretary and the scholar. One Richerius Clericus, Hampshire, appears in the Domesday Book of 1086. The surname was first recorded in the early 12th Century (see below), and other early recordings include: Reginald Clerc, noted in the Curia Regis Rolls of Rutland (1205), and John le Clerk, registered in the "Transcripts of Charters relating to the Gilbertine Houses", Lincolnshire (1272). In the modern idiom the surname can be found as Clark, Clarke, Clerk and Clerke. Richard Clarke was noted as a passenger on the "Mayflower" bound for the New World in 1620. Lawrence Clark, together with his wife, Margaret, and son, Thomas, were famine emigrants who sailed from Liverpool aboard the "Shenandoah", bound for New York in March 1846. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Willelm le Clerec, which was dated 1100, in "The Old English Byname Register of Somerset", during the reign of King Henry 1, known as "The Lion of Justice", 1100 - 1135. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling 
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Clarke Family Crest
This long-established surname is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is from a medieval occupational name for a scribe or secretary, or for a member of a minor religious order. The word "clerc", from the Olde English pre 7th Century "Cler(e)c", priest, originally denoted a member of a religious order only, but since the clergy of minor orders were allowed to marry and so found families, the surname could become established. It should also be noted that during the Middle Ages virtually the only people who were able to read and write were members of religious orders and it was therefore natural that the term "clark" or "clerk" would come to be used of any literate man, particularly the professional secretary and the scholar. One Richerius Clericus, Hampshire, appears in the Domesday Book of 1086. The surname is first recorded in the early 12th Century (see below), and other early recordings include: Reginald Clerc, noted in the Curia Regis Rolls of Rutland (1205), and John le Clerk, registered in the "Transcripts of Charters relating to the Gilbertine Houses", Lincolnshire (1272). The modern surname can be found as Clark, Clarke, Clerk or Clerke. Richard Clarke was noted as a passenger on the "Mayflower" bound for the New World in 1620. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Willelm le Clerec, which was dated 1100, in "The Old English Byname Register of Somerset", during the reign of King Henry 1, known as "The Lion of Justice", 1100 - 1135. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.
(At least one living or private individual is linked to this item - Details withheld.) 
 
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Cleveland Family Crest
Cleveland Family Crest
This interesting surname is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is a regional name from a district in North Yorkshire around Middlebrough. The derivation of Cleveland, which first appears circa 1110 in the Yorkshire Charters as "Clivelanda", is from the Olde English pre 7th Century "clif", cliff or hill, with "land", land; thus, "a hilly district". During the Middle Ages, when it became more usual for people to migrate from their birthplace, they would often adopt the placename as a means of identification, thus resulting in a wide dispersal of the name. In the case of regional names they tended to be acquired when someone travelled a considerable distance from his original home, where a specific locational name would be meaningless to his new neighbours. Early recordings from Yorkshire Church Registers include: the christening of Christiane Cleveland on May 16th 1574, at Filey, and the christening of Ann Cleveland on August 10th 1599, at Normanton. A Coat of Arms granted to a family of the name is described thus: "Per chevron black and ermine a chevron engrailed counterchanged, the Crest being a demi old man proper habited blue having on a cap red turned up with a hair front, holding in the dexter hand a spear headed silver on the top of which is fixed a line proper passing behind him, and coiled up in the sinister hand. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of John Cleveland, which was dated April 20th 1572, recorded at Filey, Yorkshire, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth 1, known as "Good Queen Bess", 1558 - 1603. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
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Clifford Family Crest
Clifford Family Crest
This is an English locational surname of Anglo-Saxon origin, from any of the places so called in the counties of Gloucestershire, Devonshire, Herefordshire and West Yorkshire. The placenames are first recorded as either "Clifort" or "Cliford" in the Domesday Book of 1086, and all share the same meaning and derivation. The name means "the ford at the cliff or slope", derived from the Olde English pre 7th Century "clif", a slope, cliff or steep bank, with "ford", a ford. Locational surnames were developed when former inhabitants of a place moved to another area, usually to seek work, and were best identified by the name of their birthplace. The Walter de Clifford recorded below adopted his name from Clifford Castle near Hay-on-Wye, acquired through marriage to a family that have held the titles of the barony of Westmoreland and the Earldom of Cumberland. The hereditary title of Lord Clifford of Chudleigh was given to Thomas Clifford (1630 - 1673), a leading minster of Charles 11. Olliver Clifford, aged 18 yrs., was an early settler in Virginia, having embarked from London aboard the "Primrose" in July 1635. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Walter de Clifford, which was dated 1182, in the "Pipe Rolls of Warwickshire", during the reign of King Henry 11, known as "The Builder of Churches", 1154 - 1189. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 
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Cobus Family Crest
Cobus Family Crest
 
 
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Coleman Family Crest
Coleman Family Crest
This interesting surname is a Scottish variant of Coleman, which has a number of possible origins, the first source being of both Irish and English origin, from the Old Irish personal name "Colman", from "Columban", a compound of the Gaelic elements "colm", a dove and "ban", white, hence a "white dove". This name was adopted by Scandinavians as the Old Norse "Kalman" and was introduced into Cumberland, Westmorland and Yorkshire by Norwegians from Ireland. The second source is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and was given as an occupational name for a burner of charcoal or a gatherer of coal, from the Middle English (1200 - 1500) "coleman", derived from the Old English pre 7th Century "col" (char) coal and "mann", man. This source of the surname is the same as that of the surname Collier. Another possible source is also of English origin, from an occupational name for the servant of a man named "Cole", Middle English a personal name derived from the Old English byname "cola", from "col", (char)coal, used to describe someone of a dark complexion. The modern surname can be found as Coleman, Colman, Coulman, Callum and Cullum. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Hervicus Coleman, which was dated 1166, in the "Red Book of the Exchequer", Yorkshire, during the reign of King Henry 11, known as "The Builder of Churches", 1154 - 1189. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling 
 
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Coleville Family Crest
Coleville Family Crest
 
 
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Collister Family Crest
Collister Family Crest
Recorded in a wide variety of spellings including MacAlester, MacAlister, MacAllaster, Mac Allister, MacCallister, MacCalester, MacCallaster, MacCalister, MacCalister, the short forms begining with 'Mc', and others such as Alastair, Callister and Collister, this is a Scottish surname. However its true origins are arguably Greek. It derives from the personal name 'Alexander', a name which is not recorded in Britain before the 11th century, when it was introduced by Crusaders (Knights Templar), returning from the Holy Land. The derivations are from 'Alexandros', meaning 'defender of men', from the elements 'Alexein', to defend, and 'aner', a man. Know where in Europe outside its homeland, is the name so thoroughly national as in Scotland. It has been claimed that it was first introduced by Queen Margaret, wife of King Malcolm Canmore (1057-1093), although this is unlikely. Early examples of recordings include Alexander Makalester in the registers of the Black Isle in the year 1500, whilst John Makalester had a 'precept of remission' in 1542. Angus McAlester was a follower of Murdow McCloyd who 'lead an attack on the galley of the laird of Balcomie' in 1601, whilst Ferquar MacAllister is recorded in Dunzean Croy in 1603. In London, Lydia, the daughter of Oliver and Lydia McAllester, was christened on February 16th 1746, at St. Annes Church, Westminster. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Ranald Makalestyr, which was dated 1455, in the Exchequer Rolls of Scotland. This was also during the reign of King James 11nd, of Scotland, 1437 - 1460. Throughout the centuries surnames in every country have continued to "develop", often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling 
 
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Conway Family Crest
Conway Family Crest
This interesting surname has at least four possible different ational origins, and is almost certainly, for most nameholders, not what its seems. That it is often locational is unarguable, but it is not usually, as is generally believed from the town of Conwy on the north coast of Wales. The first recording from that source is in 1406, one hundred and fifty years after the first 'English' recording, see below. However in a sense the nameholders of English and Welsh origins do have a shared ancestry in that they both derive from the Olde English pre 7th century 'Cam yea' meaning crooked river, various streams being so named in the English West Country in medieval times. The Scottish name holders probably derive from the hamlet of Conway in the parish of Beautly. This place was recorded as "Coneway" in the 1215 rolls. In this case the name is a claimed anglicisation of the Gaelic "Coinmheadh" which translates as "free quarter", implying a district in which troops were billeted on the local inhabitants. This is an interesting observation, although its accuracy must be open to doubt. It was the normal practise to billet troops by 'free quarter' at anytime. In Ireland "Conway" is often an anglicized form of several Irish names, such as Mac Connmhaigh, a byname meaning "Head Smasher"(!) or Mac Connbhuidhe, - the "Yellow Hound", another interesting nickname. The (Mac) Conway sept belonged to counties Clare, Limerick and Tipperary. In 1360, the Annals of the Four Masters record the death of one Gillangnaer O' Connmhaigh. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of John de Conweye. which was dated 1268, in the "Chartulary of Glastonbury", Somerset. during the reign of King Henry 111, known as "The Frenchman", 1216 - 1272. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. 
 

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